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King John of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

King John of England

King John of England (aka John Lackland) ruled from 1199 to 1216 CE. The son of Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204 CE), John succeeded his elder brother Richard I of England (r. 1189-1199 CE) as king...
Magna Carta
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Magna Carta

The Magna Carta or 'Great Charter' was an agreement imposed on King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE) on 15 June 1215 CE by rebellious barons in order to limit his power and prevent arbitrary royal acts, especially those of land confiscation...
Henry II of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry II of England

Henry II of England ruled from 1154 to 1189 CE. He gained the throne by negotiation with his predecessor King Stephen of England (r. 1135-1154 CE) following the civil war that had raged between that monarch and Henry's mother Empress...
Richard I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Richard I of England

Richard I of England, also known as Richard the Lionheart (Cœur de Lion), reigned as king of England from 1189 to 1199 CE. The son of Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204 CE), Richard was known...
Alexander II of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Alexander II of Scotland

Alexander II of Scotland reigned from 1214 to 1249 CE. Succeeding his father William I of Scotland (r. 1165-1214 CE), Alexander supported the northern barons in England against the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE) and so contributed...
Henry III of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry III of England

Henry III of England ruled from 1216 to 1272 CE. The son of the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE), Henry was immediately faced with the ongoing Barons' War which had been fuelled by discontent over John's rule and his failure...
William I of Scotland
Definition by Mark Cartwright

William I of Scotland

William I of Scotland, also known as 'William the Lion' after his heraldic emblem, reigned from 1165 to 1214 CE. Succeeding his elder brother Malcolm IV of Scotland (r. 1153-1165 CE), William was faced with a shrinking kingdom, but he harboured...
Rochester Castle
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Rochester Castle

Rochester Castle, located in Kent, England, was first constructed shortly after 1066 CE by the Normans, was converted into stone between 1087 and 1089 CE, and then added to over subsequent centuries, notably between 1127 and 1136 CE...
British Crown Jewels
Definition by Mark Cartwright

British Crown Jewels

The Crown Jewels of the monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland are today kept in the Tower of London and date mostly to the 17th century CE, with a few later sparkling additions such as the Koh-i-Noor and Cullinan...
The Plantagenets
Collection by Mark Cartwright

The Plantagenets

The Plantagenets, sometimes referred to as the Angevin-Plantagenets, were the ruling dynasty of England from 1154 to 1485 CE. The name Angevin derives from the family's ancestral lands in Anjou, France and the term Plantagenet (perhaps) from...