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Etruscan Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Civilization

The Etruscan civilization flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE. The culture was renowned in antiquity for its rich mineral resources and as a major Mediterranean trading power. Much of its culture and even history...
Symposium
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Symposium

The symposium (or symposion) was an important part of ancient Greek culture from the 7th century BCE and was a party held in a private home where Greek males gathered to drink, eat and sing together. Various topics were also discussed such...
Noh Theatre
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Noh Theatre

Noh (Nō) theatre is a Japanese performance art which became especially popular from the 14th century CE and which is still performed today. Noh actors, who were always male in the medieval period, famously move and make gestures in a very...
Parthian Culture
Definition by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian Culture

Stretching between China and India in the east to the Mediterranean in the west, Parthia ruled over one of the widest expanses of empire in its time and Parthian culture flourished for 500 years (247 BCE - 224 CE). While known for their...
Aztec Pantheon
Article by Mark Cartwright

Aztec Pantheon

The gods of the Aztecs (1345-1521 CE) were many and varied and, as with many other ancient cultures, deities were closely associated with things and events important to the culture and the general welfare of the community. These include gods...
Leisure in an English Medieval Castle
Article by Mark Cartwright

Leisure in an English Medieval Castle

Thanks to their favoured position in life and the labour of the peasants on their estates, nobles in an English medieval castle had plenty of leisure hours which could be frittered away by eating, drinking, dancing, playing games like chess...
The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta
Article by Paul Rahe

The Grand Strategy of Classical Sparta

In ancient Lacedaemon, as in all enduring political communities, there was a symbiotic relationship between the form of government chosen, the way of life that this form of government fostered, and the grand strategy that the community gradually...
Sports, Games & Entertainment in the Elizabethan Era
Article by Mark Cartwright

Sports, Games & Entertainment in the Elizabethan Era

Leisure activities in the Elizabethan era (1558-1603 CE) became more varied than in any previous period of English history and more professional with what might be called the first genuine entertainment industry providing the public with...
Mulan: The Legend Through History
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Mulan: The Legend Through History

Mulan (“magnolia”) is a legendary character in Chinese literature who is best known in the modern day from the Disney filmed adaptations (1998, 2020 CE). Her story, however, about a young girl who takes her father’s place...
Confucianism
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Confucianism

Confucianism is a philosophy developed in 6th-century BCE China, which is considered by some a secular-humanist belief system, by some a religion, and by others a social code. The broad range of subjects touched on by Confucianism lends itself...