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Julius Caesar
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was born 12 July 100 BCE (though some cite 102 as his birth year). His father, also Gaius Julius Caesar, was a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mother, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. Both held to the...
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Definition by Livius

Sextus Julius Caesar

Sextus Julius Caesar (died 90 or 89 BCE) was Roman politician in the first quarter of the first century BCE. In our sources, he is sometimes called Lucius. The end of the second century BCE witnessed the rise of new families in Roman...
The Murder of Julius Caesar
Article by Donald L. Wasson

The Murder of Julius Caesar

Veni, vidi, vici! This was the simple message the Roman commander Julius Caesar sent to the Senate in Rome after a resounding victory in the east against King Pharnaces of Pontus - a message that demonstrated both arrogance as well as...
Julius Caesar: The Faults Behind the Myth
Article by Marc Hyden

Julius Caesar: The Faults Behind the Myth

Last March marked the anniversary of Julius Caesar’s assassination over 2,000 years ago, and after two millennia, his legendary achievements still linger in today’s consciousness just as they have for centuries. He was so revered...
Caesarion
Definition by Arienne King

Caesarion

Ptolemy XV Caesar “Theos Philopator Philometor” (“the Father-loving Mother-loving God”) (c. 47-30 BCE), better known by his unofficial nickname Caesarion or “Little Caesar” in Greek, was the oldest...
The Battle of Colmar (58 BCE): Caesar against Ariovistus
Article by Jona Lendering

The Battle of Colmar (58 BCE): Caesar against Ariovistus

The Battle of Colmar (58 BCE): one of the first battles of the Gallic War, in which Caesar defeated an army led by the Germanic leader Ariovistus. In 58 BCE, Julius Caesar had invaded Central Gaul. The pretext had been the plan of the...
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Article by Steven Fife

Caesar As Dictator: His Impact on the City of Rome

During his reign as dictator from 49-44 BC, Julius Caesar had a number of notable impacts on the city of Rome. One of the initial crises with which Caesar had to deal was widespread debt in Rome, especially after the outbreak of civil war...
Cleopatra VII
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cleopatra VII

Cleopatra VII (l. c. 69-30 BCE, r. 51-30 BCE) was the last ruler of Egypt before it was annexed as a province of Rome. Although arguably the most famous Egyptian queen, Cleopatra was actually Greek and a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty...
Vercingetorix
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Vercingetorix

Vercingetorix (82-46 BCE) was a Gallic chieftain who rallied the tribes of Gaul (modern-day France) to repel the Roman invasion of Julius Caesar in 52 BCE.  His name means "Victor of a Hundred Battles" and was not his birth...
First Triumvirate
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate of ancient Rome was an uneasy alliance between the three titans Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus which, from 60 BCE until 53 BCE, dominated the politics of the Roman Republic. Alliances have always been a part of history...