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Sea Peoples
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sea Peoples

The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region between c. 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt. They are considered one of the major contributing...
Phoenician Colonization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Phoenician Colonization

The prosperity of Phoenician cities such as Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos was based on trade, and it was the search for new commodities and new markets which resulted in the Phoenicians branching out from the narrow coastal strip of the Levant...
Etruscan Art
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Art

The art of the Etruscans, who flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE, is renowned for its vitality and often vivid colouring. Wall paintings were especially vibrant and frequently capture scenes of Etruscans enjoying...
Knights Hospitaller
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Knights Hospitaller

The Knights Hospitaller was a medieval Catholic military order founded in 1113 CE with the full name of ‘Knights of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem’. After their base was relocated to Rhodes in the early 14th...
Ancient Crete
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Crete

Crete is an island in the eastern Mediterranean which during the Bronze Age produced the influential Minoan civilization with its distinctive architecture and art. An important member of the Greek world in the Archaic period, Crete dipped...
Aytap
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aytap

Aytap is the modern name for the ancient city of Iotapa (sometimes given as Iotape and Iotape Philadelphos) in Cilicia. The city’s ruins are located in southern Turkey near modern day Alanya (ancient Coracesium). The city was founded...
Cilicia Campestris
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cilicia Campestris

Cilicia Campestris was one of the six districts of the Roman province of Cilicia organized by Pompey the Great (l. c. 106-48 BCE) in 64 BCE. The name translates roughly into “Cilicia of the Plains” and corresponds to the earlier...
Carthaginian Naval Warfare
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Naval Warfare

The Carthaginians were famed in antiquity for their seafaring skills and innovation in ship design. The empire their navy protected stretched from Sicily to the Atlantic coast of Africa. Able to match the tyrants of Sicily and the Hellenistic...
Sabratha
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sabratha

Sabratha was an ancient port city on the coast of North Africa (in modern-day Libya). The site was originally inhabited by the indigenous Berber Zwagha tribe in the 8th century BCE (according to the 11th-century CE historian al-Bakari) who...
Food & Agriculture in Ancient Greece
Article by Mark Cartwright

Food & Agriculture in Ancient Greece

The prosperity of the majority of Greek city-states was based on agriculture and the ability to produce the necessary surplus which allowed some citizens to pursue other trades and pastimes and to create a quantity of exported goods so that...